Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.784 in 2018 (0.712 in 2015); the highest literacy rate, 96.2% in the 2018 literacy survey conducted by the National Statistical Office, India; the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. The Ponmudi hill station which has an elevation of 1,100 metres (3,609 ft) is also near the city. ", Devika, J. So the whole of the western and southern frontiers of Kerala is bordered by Tamil Nadu. , Kerala's western coastal belt is relatively flat compared to the eastern region,:33 and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected brackish canals, lakes, estuaries, and rivers known as the Kerala Backwaters.  People in Kerala experience elevated incidence of cancers, liver and kidney diseases.  According to the 2011 census, Kerala has a 93.91% literacy, compared to the national literacy rate of 74.04%. He describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found".  The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, and Satiyaputra. Chathukulam, Jos, and Joseph Tharamangalam. 458–56. (60 metres (197 ft)) Agastya Mala, which has an elevation of 1,868 metres (6,129 ft) is only about 60 km from the city. The southernmost extremity, Parassala, is just 54 kilometres (34 mi) away from the southern peninsular tip of India, Cape Comorin (Kanya Kumari). The capital city of the state is Thiruvananthapuram, even though the city of Kochi is more densely populated.The area of Kerala is 15,005 mi 2 (38,863 km 2), which is bigger than Bhutan but smaller than Switzerland. Previously, the gender preferences provided in government forms and documents included male, female, and other/third gender. , Kerala is home to 2.76% of India's population; with a density of 859 persons per km2, its land is nearly three times as densely settled as the national average of 370 persons per km2. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population.  There was a significant Jewish community which existed in Kerala until the 20th century, when most of them migrated to Israel.  Major railway transport between Beypore–Tirur began on 12 March 1861, from Shoranur–Cochin Harbour section in 1902, from Kollam–Sengottai on 1 July 1904, Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram on 4 January 1918, from Nilambur-Shoranur in 1927, from Ernakulam–Kottayam in 1956, from Kottayam–Kollam in 1958, from Thiruvananthapuram–Kanyakumari in 1979 and from the Thrissur-Guruvayur Section in 1994.  These may be accompanied by chutney, kadala, payasam, payar pappadam, appam, chicken curry, beef fry, egg masala and fish curry.  In the early decades of the 19th century, the modern educational transformation of Kerala was triggered by the efforts of the Church Mission Society missionaries to promote mass education. An insurrection at the Port of Quilon between the Arabs and the Portuguese led to the end of the Portuguese era in Quilon. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonisation of India. ), Weil, Shalva. Antherjanam, Lalithambika. :12, 174–175 Reptiles include the king cobra, viper, python, and mugger crocodile. , Ancient Christian tradition says that Christianity reached the shores of Kerala in 52 CE with the arrival of Thomas the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ.  Kerala's ecotourism destinations include 12 wildlife sanctuaries and two national parks: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Muthanga Wildlife Sanctuary, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, and Silent Valley National Park are the most popular among them. Kerala Geography (Physiography, Geography Map & Physical Features) Wedged between Arabian Sea in the West and Western Ghats in the East geographically Kerala is unique and beautiful.  The Central Coir Research Institute was established there in 1959. For other uses, see. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are to the east.. In 2011–2012, it contributed 63.22% of the state's GDP, agriculture and allied sectors contributed 15.73%, while manufacturing, construction and utilities contributed 21.05%.  However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean (Indu Maha Samundr) stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages.  Kerala has the largest population of Christians in India. Encyclopædia Britannica. Kerala's economy depends significantly on emigrants working in foreign countries, mainly in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and the remittances annually contribute more than a fifth of GSDP. He was instrumental in establishing four mathas at Sringeri, Dwarka, Puri and Jyotirmath. Three quarters of the land area of Kerala was under thick forest up to 18th century. Way for European colonisation of India published in Kerala. word Malanad which means the land of and. 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